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In the three weeks since the Government released its disappointing children’s obesity plan, a lot has been said over who’s to blame for the nation’s obesity crisis.

When it comes to children, some have claimed it’s down to parents to ensure kids maintain a healthy weight. But parents can only do so much, and without the right information, they are hard pressed to make healthy choices for their children.

We believe it’s the Government’s responsibility to inform the public of health risks associated with being overweight or obese, and to ensure measures are in place to support parents and children.

And we’re not the only ones that feel the Government has failed in attempting to tackle childhood obesity. Health experts, MPs and even the CEO of Sainsbury’s have criticised the plan as being ‘weak’ and ‘watered down’.

But no matter who’s to blame, one thing that’s clear is that the message around the damage obesity causes, both in childhood and in adulthood, isn’t getting through – neither to the Government, nor the public.

This worrying conclusion has been reinforced today as we published new data showing that three in four people aren’t aware that obesity causes cancer.

And it raises some important questions over the Government’s long-term plans to tackle the biggest preventable cause of cancer after smoking.

Obesity and Cancer

Being overweight or obese can cause up to 10 types of cancer, including, breast, bowel, oesophageal and pancreatic tumours.

We’ve written before about how obesity can cause cancer, and tips on how to control your weight.

But are the public really aware of the health risks we are facing as a nation now that being overweight or obese is becoming the norm?

With a recent study we funded showing that if trends continue, almost three quarters (72 per cent) of the UK population will be overweight or obese by 2035 this question becomes all the more important.

Especially as these rising levels of obesity could cause a further 670,000 cases of cancer in the UK over the next 20 years.

Public awareness of obesity and cancer

Working with Professor Annie Anderson, public health nutrition expert at the University of Dundee, our in-house Policy Research Centre for Cancer Prevention asked 3293 people from the UK what they know about the health risks linked to obesity.

And the results were concerning.

When people were asked to name health conditions that could be caused by being overweight or obese, three in four didn’t know obesity caused cancer.

And when asked about which cancers can be caused by being overweight or obese, the answers were mostly focused on cancers of the digestive system, which makes sense, but not other organs, such as the reproductive organs.

The graphic below shows the level of public awareness of obesity as a risk factor for the four most common cancers related to obesity in the UK. Twice as many people (60 per cent) associated obesity with bowel cancer than with breast cancer (31 per cent).

But we also wanted to dig a little deeper and find out what was affecting public health knowledge, in particular people’s awareness of a link between obesity and cancer.

We looked to see if there was a relationship between social demographics such as age, gender or social grade (a classification system based on occupation) and cancer as a health risk caused by obesity. It turns out that while the public were generally unaware of the link between obesity and cancer, there was a small but significant gap in awareness between the highest and lowest social grades.

When asked which health conditions could result from being overweight or obese, only two in 10 people in the lowest two social grades listed cancer, compared to around three in 10 in the highest social grade.

This is particularly concerning because those from the lowest social grade are more likely to be overweight or obese than those from the highest social grade. Health Survey for England data has shown that around a third of men and women with no qualifications (NVQ1/CSE or equivalent) are obese compared to around a fifth of men and women who have a degree or equivalent qualification.

And when looking at childhood obesity, a quarter (24 per cent) of those from the most deprived group will leave primary school obese, compared to half as many (12 per cent) in the least deprived group.

The Government needs to be doing more to help all children maintain a healthy weight.

What can be done?

Knowing that being overweight or obese can increase the risk of cancer is one of the first steps in making informed choices that lead to a healthier lifestyle.

But to help bridge this gap, it’s important that public health messages and the ways that Government initiatives are targeted and tailored ensure equal access to health information for everyone.

People need to understand the link between cancer and obesity so that they feel they have the information to make decisions about their health.

But the knowledge of the risks isn’t always enough. To make good intentions reality, we need support from Government to promote healthy eating.

Tackling unhealthy food marketing to children is one of the biggest omissions from the Government’s obesity plan – action here would help more families eat better.

The evidence is clear – children who are exposed to junk food adverts are more likely to eat unhealthy food. Television channels in the UK aren’t allowed to show unhealthy adverts around children’s programmes.

But we want the Government to extend this to include programmes that families watch together – this measure would more than halve children’s exposure to this advertising.

The public need the information and support to make healthy choices. And it’s down to the Government to help them.

Lucie Hooper is a researcher in the Policy Research Centre for Cancer Prevention at Cancer Research UK

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Check your facts please October 17, 2016

Some researchers claim there is a link between obesity and cancer. The truth is, most studies fail to find an association between weight and cancer mortality. In fact, for every study you can find that claims an association between obesity and cancer, you can find another one that shows obesity is actually protective against cancer.

Paul Woodcock October 7, 2016

The Graphic showing the number of different cancers caused by being overweight is also grossly misleading. Taking Colon Cancer for example. Family History, History of inflammatory bowel illnesses such as IBD, crown’s disease and colitis, smoking and drinking are all risk factors for this cancer but none cause it on their own.
Nobody is saying that being overweight does not cause health problems but I would say the link between being overweight and coronary heart disease is bigger than that for cancer as being overweight puts a strain on the heart.

Paul Woodcock October 7, 2016

I think this maybe misleading. Whilst being overweight is a risk factor for cancer, hear disease etc it is not a direct cause of it. Also it is more likely to be the diet leading to being obese that would be the problem. Lack of fruit and vegetables and too much fat, sugar and carbohydrates.lack of exercise may be a result of being overweight as well as a partial cause of it and this is a risk factor for cancer too. It is about re-educating people right from school about healthy lifestyle choices and information. To say being overweight dirrectly causes cancer is grossly misleading.

Pawan Randev October 7, 2016

Helpful article and the graphics are good. Can the graphics be set to download as a powerpoint,option so that is is neater if they are used to educate as part of a presentation? This is done in the BJC site and is helpful.

Carole Hamilton October 7, 2016

I think it is time that the government legislated for the food industry to begin cutting down sugar in particular, from their products, by, say 10% per year, to enable people to start reducing their sugar consumption bit by bit. By gradually reducing sugar across the board (all manufacturers) people will cut their consumption without noticing it. This would help reduce the diabetic problem (eventually) and reduce weight (hopefully)

Liz October 6, 2016

A correlation does not imply a causal link. And a risk factor is not the same as a cause. Sensationalist headlines like this are not helpful.

Ellen Palmer October 6, 2016

I have incurrable cancer and am heartily sick of “scientic research” which states categorically that cancer is caused by obesity. I am not obese, and many of my friends who I have met through our local cancer network are not obese; neither is it true that every obese person suffers from some form of cancer. We do need research, but we do not need to hound any one group of people. Prove to me why I have incurrable cancer when I am not over weight, I don’t smoke and never have, and my alcohol intake is one glass of wine at Christmas, and then link it to other suffers so that we have an identifiable trail. Obesity is a really big problem, but just like cancer there is no one single cause of obesity – not everyone who is over weight is so because they over eat. – some of them have medical issues and their weight gain is sometimes caused by the medicines they have to take. Let the proper people solve that issue and let the cancer research scientists deal with the cancer.

David October 6, 2016

I take strong exception to the phrase “obesity causes cancer” because it implies that all obese people will get cancer.

Obesity increases the risk of cancer, in the same way that obesity increases the risk of other diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes and heart disease.

However, using the oft stated statistic, 80% of people diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes are over weight or obese. 20% of overweight or obese people will develop Type 2 Diabetes.

So 80% of overweight and obese people will NOT develop Type 2 Diabetes. So being over weight or obese increases the risk but it does guarantee that you will get T2 Diabetes.

Note also that 20% of people who are not over weight or obese develop T2 diabetes.

Honest reporting, please. There is a big difference between “causes” and “can cause”. You appear to be saying that being overweight WILL cause cancer.

Oh, and can you have a word with Macmillan, please?

Their adverts promote people who are over weight or obese eating unhealthy foods to fight cancer. Mixed messages?

melissa October 6, 2016

I agree people should be rewarded for being a healthy weight. I know of an obese person who got free gym membership and a personal trainer! They are already diabetic through being fat and get free perscriptions! so annoying getting on a plan with a fat person who fats spills onto my seat

Alex Thompson October 6, 2016

Food packaging should clearly label the calorie content of the entire item and not just put per 100g or some arbitrary measure of what the manufacturer thinks is a portion size. I purchased a dessert yesterday that was meant to be for 2. The whole dessert was 200g so I’m certain some people would eat the whole thing. As it turns out 200g was around 1,000 calories. I took the decision to cut it four ways because I don’t think we should be eating even 500 calories in one sitting on a dessert. So in a nutshell if food packaging is not made a LOT clearer we have no hope.

DorothyHarland October 6, 2016

Put simply, the government, the NHS, airlines etc. , need to reward people for being a healthy weight and penalise them for being an unhealthy weight. An Obesity Tsunami awaits us if drastic steps are not taken!